Bioclimatic or rain gardenRain garden includes depression in the terrain, to which the water from the surrounding areas runs off and remains there. The depression is planted with selected plants and their root system acts as a filter and retains the water. Roots serving as the filter are able to absorb contaminants up to 30 – 40% more than common lawn. This system prevents soaking of pollutants in groundwater or their possible disposal to sewage systems. Rain garden not only enables better retention of water, but also provides shelter and food to animals.
Esthetically and environmentally interesting alternative how to deal with rain water are green roofs, roofs with surface consisting of live foliage.
How can individuals, for example gardeners, help?
Landscape tending begins with the fact that gardeners make compost. By composting they obtain organic fertilizer which they insert back in soil. Thus enriched soil soaks water better and lets the nutrients out worse. It is important to catch the water directly in the landscape where it fell down, rather than in a pond or a basin. Catching of water must be done on the entire area. Formerly, farmers used irrigation trenches and pits, which was actually the last furrow of the field which was deeper than the rest of them. Another thing turns out. By forming balks or agricultural terraces, water slowly stores in these areas and at the same time prevents the soil erosion.
And how can people in the cities contribute? Can we save even more water?
More extensive saving of water is not necessary. We are on a reasonable minimum. In countries like Guatemala, the daily water consumption is 50 liters per person. This volume is considered a recommended humanitarian daily dose. In poor countries this water should be free of charge. The Czech consumes about 90 liters of water per day. The current development leads to collecting rain water or so called “grey” water, which is waste water not containing feces or urine that drains from washbasins, bathtubs, showers or sinks. It has several positive impacts. You decrease flood wave because you catch rainstorms and save drinking water that you would otherwise use for flushing toilets or irrigating gardens.